Thermodynamics vs. Relativity
Thermodynamic research in recent years [1–6] revealed that the mass, time and space concepts of Albert Einstein's Theories of special and general relativity (SR and GR) [7–9] are incompatible with those of thermodynamics (TD). While SR and GR state a relative time, with which all processes become symmetrical and completely reversible, the absolute time is a mandatory basis of the concept of a thermodynamic system and the description of irreversible processes. While modern physics assumesthe so-called energy-mass equivalence E = mc2 for the total energy E of a system , the 1st law of thermodynamics (the principle of the conservation of energy) is only compatible with E = mc2 + Epot.
The so-called energy-matter equivalence  E = mc2 + Epot represents a new conceptual basis of physics. Here, the non-ponderable energy amount Epot is the positional energy of system components and of the system itself. Epot must be distinguished from the so-called binding or interaction energy that is released e.g. during electromagnetic or gravitational binding . The essence of the thermodynamic approach is that matter is conceptually and energetically more than mass. Volume, interface area, spring tension, position in the gravitational field etc. represent independent energetic properties of a body (matter) in addition to mass:
Table 1. The mass concepts of special relativity (SR) and thermodynamics (TD).
|Energy-mass proportionality (SR)||Energy-matter equivalence (TD)|
|Total measurable energy E||E = mc2||E = mc2 + Epot|
|Ponderable||each kind of energy||not each kind of energy|
|Rest mass m0||cannot be explained||can be explained|
|Moved mass m(v)||is disputed: real or apparent?||is real|
|Matter concept||Matter is reduced to mass.||Matter is more than mass.|
- G. Kalies: Vom Energieinhalt ruhender Körper, De Gruyter, Berlin, 2019. doi.org/10.1515/9783110656961
- G. Kalies: Matter-Energy Equivalence, Z. Phys. Chem. 234 (2020) 1567–1602. doi.org/10.1515/zpch-2019-1487
- G. Kalies: A solution of the interpretation problem of Lorentz transformations (2020) 1–25. doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0705.v1
- G. Kalies: A Solution of the Time Paradox of Physics, Z. Phys. Chem. 235 (2021) 849–874. doi.org/10.1515/zpch-2020-1659
- G. Kalies: Fundamental laws of nature confirmed by free fall, Research Square (2021) 1–18 doi: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-624477/v1
- G. Kalies: Back to the roots: The concepts of force and energy, Z. Phys. Chem. 236(4) (2022).
- A. Einstein: Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper, Ann. Phys. 322 (1905) 891–921. doi.org/10.1002/andp.19053221004
- A. Einstein: Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?, Ann. Phys. Chem. 18 (1905) 639–641. doi.org/10.1007/978-3-663-19510-8_4
- A. Einstein: Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation, Sitzungsber. Königl. Preuß.Akad. Wiss. Berlin 2 (1915) 844–847. doi.org/10.1002/3527608958.ch5